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hydrogen technologies and electromobility
Produkcja wodoru w Polsce - technologie i najwięksi producenci wodoru

Hydrogen production in Poland: innovations in green energy technology

Last year, Poland’s hydrogen production reached 784,64 thousand tons and is gradually becoming a key factor within the energy revolution that is shaping the future of our country. At the center of this energy transition is hydrogen – not only as a product, but also as a symbol of a new era in the Polish economy and ecology. The growing role of hydrogen production in Poland affects the reduction of the country’s dependence on fossil fuels. It also enables the realization of ecological goals that open up new opportunities for Poland, both technological and strategic.

Hydrogen production in Poland has the potential to become a key element in the country’s sustainable development strategy, offering innovative pathways to achieve carbon neutrality. Particularly important is its role of hydrogen procurement in the decarbonization of hard-to-electrify sectors, such as heavy transportation and heavy industry. In Poland, where decarbonization of the economy is not only a necessity, but also an opportunity for the development of new technologies, hydrogen can play a key role. The use of green hydrogen produced using renewable energy sources (OZE) such as solar or wind power, seems particularly promising. Such a model of hydrogen production not only minimizes environmental impact, but also creates new economic opportunities, paving the way for Poland’s energy self-sufficiency and becoming a leading hydrogen producer in the world.

Hydrogen production in Poland and Europe

Hydrogen, while abundant in the universe, is hardly available in its pure form on Earth. Currently, global hydrogen production is about 70 million tons per year, most of which comes from fossil fuels, contributing about 2% of global carbon dioxide emissions. This fact casts a shadow over the perception of hydrogen as a ‘clean’ energy source.

The market for hydrogen production faces the prospect of significant growth, with a projected value of up to $2.5 trillion by 2050. This growth is fueled by increasing demand for sustainable energy sources and technological advances that can reduce the cost of hydrogen production, making it more accessible and economically viable.

Poland third hydrogen producer in Europe and fifth in the world

In recent years, hydrogen producers have gained prominence as key players in the European and global energy transition. Positioning itself as the third largest hydrogen producer in the European Union and the fifth largest in the world, Poland is on the front lines of this revolutionary change. However, despite its promising potential, the hydrogen market is fraught with challenges that are shaping its future.

Hydrogen production annual acquisition in Europe in 2022
Diagram: Annual hydrogen acquisition in Europe - 2022
Source: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Obsevatory, Hydrogen Europe

As the chart above shows, Poland, with its growing share of global hydrogen production, faces a unique opportunity to tap this potential. As technology develops and efficiency improves, hydrogen is expected to become a key element in the future energy mix, especially in hard-to-electrify sectors such as heavy transportation and energy-intensive industries. Challenges, such as the high cost of hydrogen infrastructure, storage and transportation, remain, but technological advances and increasing market interest point to a bright future for the sector.

Hydrogen extraction in Top 3 EU: Germany, Netherlands and Poland

Top3 countries in Europe 1. Germany 2. Netherlands 3. Poland
Total hydrogen extraction
1744 kt
970,91 kt
784,64 kt
Number of production facilities

Methods of obtaining hydrogen

1524,84 kt
837,63 kt
784,64 kt
211,23 kt
133,28 kt
17,53 kt


123,63 kt
16,36 kt
7,72 kt


73,79 kt
61,01 kt
9,80 kt


13,81 kt
55,91 kt
0 kt

Source: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Obsevatory, Hydrogen Europe

Scale of hydrogen extraction for top 3 European countries:

    • Germany leads Europe in terms of hydrogen extraction, with production almost double that of the Netherlands and  Poland. Germany also has significantly more production facilities compared to the Netherlands and Poland, indicating a more developed infrastructure in the industry.
    • The Netherlands, despite having fewer production facilities than Germany, ranks second, which may indicate the higher efficiency and production capacity of individual facilities.
    • Poland, ranked third, has a smaller number of production facilities, but still achieves significant production, which may indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of the plants in operation.

Hydrogen production methods of Europe:

    • In Germany and Poland, reforming is the dominant production method, which is characteristic of most hydrogen-producing countries. Production from by-products, although smaller, also plays a significant role.
    • In the Netherlands, reforming also accounts for the majority of production, and production from byproducts, particularly styrene, is significant. This differs from Poland, where production from ethylene is more significant.
    • Production from the chlor-alkali process is present in all three countries, but its share is largest in Germany, which may indicate differences in the chemical industry between the countries.


    • Germany leads Europe in hydrogen production due to its extensive infrastructure and advanced technology.
    • The Netherlands, despite a smaller number of plants, maintains a strong position thanks to its efficient and large installations.
    • Poland, ranked third, shows significant efficiency in hydrogen production, which puts it in a good light against European competitors and indicates potential growth opportunities in this industry.

How much hydrogen does Poland produce?

In 2022, Poland’s hydrogen production reached 784.64 thousand tons, indicating a significant increase compared to previous years. It is estimated that Poland had a hydrogen production potential of 1.1 megatons per year in 2022. This development underscores Poland’s growing role in the European hydrogen market. Regional analysis of production reveals that the largest production centers are concentrated in specific regions of the country concentrated around the so-called hydrogen valleys, which is related to the availability of raw materials, infrastructure and local support. This indicates regional growth fields and potential for further development of hydrogen production in Poland.

Hydrogen production in Poland in 2022
Diagram: Hydrogen production in Poland in 2022
Source: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Obsevatory, Hydrogen Europe

In 2022, the total production of hydrogen in Poland with the selected production process was 784,64 thousand tons. Poland has 20 hydrogen production facilities (excluding water electrolysis facilities with a production capacity of less than 0.5 MW) for selected types of production processes.

Hydrogen production process type:
Reforming: 767.11 kt – Hydrogen production in Poland (annual extraction) by reforming method

By-product: 17.53 kt
  – Hydrogen production in Poland (annual extraction) from by-product (chlor-alkali) – 7.72 kt
  – Hydrogen production in Poland (annual extraction) from by-product (ethylene) – 9.80 kt

The main producers of hydrogen in Poland

Poland, as a growing hub of innovation and energy technology, has its own leaders among hydrogen producers at individual industrial plants. Orlen owns the largest hydrogen plant in Poland (Płock PKN ORLEN ~ 26% of hydrogen production) sets standards in the industry, combining advanced technologies with environmental care. Puławy Zakłady Azotowe also has similar potential, but final production has reached about 18%. Below is a table and chart showing selected industrial hydrogen production facilities in Poland:

Hydrogen producers companies in Poland 2022
Diagram: Hydrogen production in Poland in 2022
Source: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Obsevatory, Hydrogen Europe
Name Process type Capacity prod. t/y Production t/y
Steam reforming - Refining sector
Gdańsk Grupa Lotos
Steam reforming - Refining sector
Puławy Zakłady Azotowe
Steam reforming - ammonia
Police Zakłady Chemiczne
Steam reforming - ammonia
Włocławek Anwil S.A. (Grupa Orlen)
Steam reforming - ammonia
Jedlicze PKN ORLEN
Steam reforming - Refining sector
Kędzierzyn Zakłady Azotowe 2
Steam reforming - ammonia
Kędzierzyn Zakłady Azotowe 1
Steam reforming - ammonia
Tarnów Zakłady Azotowe
Steam reforming - ammonia
By-product - Ethylene
Tarnów Zakłady Azotowe
Steam reforming - chemical sector
Włocławek Anwil S.A. (Grupa Orlen)
By-product - Chlor-alkali
Zakłady Chemiczne/PCC Rokita
By-product - Chlor-alkali
Puławy Zakłady Azotowe
Steam reforming
Bochnia Stalprodukt
Steam reforming

Table: Hydrogen production in Poland in 2022
Source: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Obsevatory, Hydrogen Europe

Plock PKN ORLEN It is the largest hydrogen producer in Poland, with an annual hydrogen production capacity of 232,836 tons and actual production of 190,926 tons per year. As a leader in hydrogen production, PKN ORLEN plays a key role in the domestic hydrogen market, investing in new technologies and solutions that contribute to more efficient and sustainable production.

Gdańsk Grupa Lotos Grupa Lotos z Gdańska a strong second among Polish hydrogen producers, demonstrating an annual production capacity of 168,809 tons and effectively using it to produce 138,423 tons of hydrogen per year. The company is a major player in the market, and its hydrogen production activities are important to the national energy economy.

Puławy Zakłady Azotowe  has an impressive hydrogen production capacity of 214,620 tons per year, which translates into the production of 133,536 tons of hydrogen per year. As one of Poland’s leading producers of fertilizers and chemicals, the company uses hydrogen in various chemical processes, demonstrating its strategic importance to the country’s chemical sector.

Police Zakłady Chemiczne is another major hydrogen production center with an annual production capacity of 105,120 tons and actual production of 65,405 tons. This indicates the intensive use of hydrogen in chemical production and the potential to develop more sustainable production processes.

Hydrogen valleys in Poland

What are hydrogen valleys?

Hydrogen valleys are political-socio-economic ventures aimed at creating regional hydrogen markets covering the entire hydrogen technology value chain. They include the production, transmission, storage, and application of hydrogen in various economic sectors. The hydrogen valleys are designed to support the decarbonization of energy-intensive industries, as well as develop hydrogen technology demonstrators in Poland, while building a Polish hydrogen supply chain with the cooperation of business, science, and local administration.

Polish hydrogen valleys under ARP

There are currently eleven hydrogen valleys projects operating in Poland, in which Agencja Rozwoju Przemysłu (ARP) has played a key role during the very creation of, as well as support for, Polish hydrogen valleys. As a state-owned agency and part of the Polish Development Fund Group, IDA is actively involved in Poland’s energy transition, in line with global trends related to the decarbonization of the economy and the transition to green energy.


In Poland, the following hydrogen valleys can be distinguished:

  1. Pomorska Dolina Wodorowa – 2018
  2. Wielkopolska Dolina Wodorowa – 2021
  3. Dolnośląska Dolina Wodorowa – 2021
  4. Śląsko-Małopolska Dolina Wodorowa – 2021
  5. Mazowiecka Dolina Wodorowa – 2021
  6. Podkarpacka Dolina Wodorowa – 2021
  7. Zachodniopomorska Dolina Wodorowa – 2022
  8. Rolnicza Dolina Wodorowa – 2023
  9. Centralna Dolina Wodorowa – 2023
  10. Lubelski Klaster Wodorowy – 2023
  11. Bursztynowa Dolina Wodorowa – 2023
Hydrogen valleys in Poland in 2023
Source: ARP

Each of these Hydrogen Valleys has its own unique profile and specialties, focusing on different aspects of hydrogen technologies and their applications. However, it is worth remembering that the design and implementation of Hydrogen Valleys is a dynamic and ever-evolving process, so this list may change as technology and energy policy in Poland develops.

The implementation of these projects is expected to contribute to the development of the domestic industry, create new jobs, and strengthen local economic potential.

Hydrogen technologies used in hydrogen extraction

Hydrogen, being the first element formed after the Big Bang and a component of stars, is the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen is the basic component of every star and is the element that is most abundant in the universe. Despite this, its use as an energy source on Earth is complicated and not as obvious as it may seem. So what is the problem?

Hydrogen is present in every drop of water on Earth, which would suggest that it is readily available. However, the challenge is that on our planet hydrogen is not found in free form, but bound in water molecules. While it is a highly efficient fuel and its combustion does not negatively affect the environment, extracting it from water is an energy-intensive process. The amount of energy required to release hydrogen is greater than the energy that can later be extracted from it.

Unfortunately, more than 90 percent of the hydrogen produced today comes from fossil fuels, which is associated with greenhouse gas emissions.

Despite these challenges, hydrogen technology is growing both domestically and internationally, with increasing interest in the energy, automotive and other sectors. The key to success is the development of efficient hydrogen production methods that minimize energy consumption and maximize environmental and economic benefits.

How is hydrogen produced depending on the source of the feedstock?

  1. Production of hydrogen from Wind Farms
    • Using electrolysis to convert energy from wind farms into pure hydrogen. This is a milestone towards a green economy, combining renewable energy sources with low-carbon fuel.
  2. Hydrogen production from water farms
    • Hydroelectric energy to produce hydrogen through electrolysis. This method combines traditional hydropower sources with modern hydrogen technology.
  3. Hydrogen production from Photovoltaics
    • Using solar energy through electrolysis to produce green hydrogen. This is a green solution that turns the sun’s rays into a clean fuel.
  4. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy
    • Electrolysis of water powered by nuclear energy, offering high efficiency and reliability. This method highlights the potential of nuclear energy for sustainable hydrogen production..
  5. Hydrogen Production from the Electric Grid
    • Using existing electric grid infrastructure to produce hydrogen by electrolysis. This method depends on a region’s energy mix and can be a step toward increasing energy efficiency.
  6. Producing hydrogen from Coal
    • Coal gasification is the process by which coal is converted into a hydrogen-rich gas. This method, despite environmental challenges, is playing a role in countries with abundant coal resources.
    • Coal Steam Reforming: Similar to methane steam reforming, but this uses coal as a feedstock.
  7. Hydrogen production from Natural Gas
    • Natural Gas Steam Reforming: A process in which hydrogen is extracted from natural gas using steam.
    • Partial Methane Oxidation: In this method, methane from natural gas reacts with a limited amount of oxygen to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
    • Autothermal Reforming (ATR): A combination of steam reforming of methane and partial oxidation.
    • Natural Gas Pyrolysis: A method in which natural gas is converted to hydrogen and black carbon, minimizing CO2 emissions.
  8. Hydrogen production from Biogas
    • Similar to steam reforming of natural gas, biogas can be used to produce hydrogen, offering an  environmentally friendly alternative.
  9. Hydrogen Production from Biomass
    • Biomass gasification, the process of converting organic materials into hydrogen-rich gas, combines renewable sources with fuel production.
  10. Producing Hydrogen from Waste
    • Converting waste into hydrogen is an innovative method that uses organic waste and other materials to produce clean fuel.
  11. Hydrogen Production Using Thermochemical Processes
    • High-temperature chemical processes that can efficiently convert various raw materials into hydrogen.
  12. Production of hydrogen from water
    • The most relevant technologies are those based on the electrolysis process: Water Electrolysis, Alkaline Electrolysis, Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis (PEM), Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOEC) and Water Photolysis.

Environmental impact and energy efficiency of hydrogen extraction methods in the EU

Today, as global communities focus on carbon reduction and climate change, it is becoming crucial to understand the environmental impact and energy efficiency of different hydrogen production methods.

Currently, hydrogen is extracted from hydrocarbons such as natural gas, oil and coal. Although these processes are well mastered, their main drawback is CO2 emissions, which contradicts the idea of environmentally friendly use of hydrogen. The quest for sustainable hydrogen production challenges us to find methods that are both energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

The chart below provides an analysis and comparison of various hydrogen production technologies in terms of their environmental impact and energy efficiency.

CO2 emissions according to selected hydrogen production methods
Diagram: CO2 emissions according to selected hydrogen production methods

Each hydrogen extraction method has its own unique advantages and challenges.

Electrolysis, especially when powered by renewable energy sources (RES), is considered one of the most promising and environmentally friendly methods of hydrogen production. In Poland, due to the growing share of RES, methods such as electrolysis powered by wind farms, hydroelectricity or photovoltaics are gaining importance.

On the other hand, methods such as steam reforming of natural gas and coal gasification, although now more widespread, have a greater environmental impact due to carbon emissions. However, research into CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies can help reduce these emissions.

The development of hydrogen technologies in Poland also includes innovations in converting waste into hydrogen, which is a promising alternative to traditional methods. In addition, given Poland’s rich coal resources, ways are being sought to make more efficient and cleaner use of these resources in hydrogen production.


Green hydrogen production in Poland as a clean fuel of the future

Poland, with its booming energy sector and growing interest in low-carbon technologies, is a promising ground for the development of green hydrogen production.
Green hydrogen is hydrogen produced using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, hydropower or others. A key element of green hydrogen production is that the entire process, from the generation of electricity to the electrolysis of water (the breakdown of water into oxygen and hydrogen), is free of greenhouse gas emissions.

Hydrogen production from wind farms

ikona zielony wodór - produkcja wodoru z farm wiatrowych
  • Development and Prospects: Poland, especially its coastal areas, has great potential for wind energy. Wind farms, both onshore and offshore, can provide the necessary energy to produce green hydrogen.
  • Integration with the Energy System: Using wind power to produce hydrogen helps integrate renewable energy sources into the power system, enabling better management of production variability and energy demand.

Hydrogen production from hydroelectric farms

  • Hydroelectric Power Plants as a Source of Energy: Poland, although it has limited water resources, can use hydroelectric power plants to produce green hydrogen, especially in places where water availability is greater.
  • Sustainable Use of Resources: It is important that hydroelectric development respect local ecosystems and water resources.
ikona zielony wodór - produkcja wodoru z farm wodnych

Hydrogen production from photovoltaics (formally yellow hydrogen)

ikona zielony wodór - produkcja wodoru z fotowoltaiki
  • Technology and Potential: Photovoltaics (PV) in Poland is developing rapidly, offering significant potential for green hydrogen production. Using solar panels to generate electricity, which is then used in an electrolysis process to produce hydrogen, is a key element in this approach.
  • Challenges and Solutions: The main challenge is to ensure the continuity of energy production, due to fluctuating solar conditions. The solution could be hybrid systems combining photovoltaics with other renewable energy sources or energy storage to enable a continuous electrolysis process.

The future of green hydrogen production in Poland

Poland, with its rapidly developing energy sector and growing interest in low-carbon technologies, is a promising ground for the development of green hydrogen production. Green hydrogen, produced using energy from renewable sources such as wind and solar, is a key element in achieving Poland’s and the EU’s climate goals.

From a long-term perspective, Poland has a chance to become one of the leaders in the production and use of green hydrogen in Europe. The development of this technology will not only contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but can also significantly influence the diversification of energy sources and increase the country’s energy security. The key to success will be continued investment in research and development, as well as international and regional cooperation within the framework of EU hydrogen initiatives.
Green hydrogen production in Poland is at a crucial juncture, where both challenges and opportunities are shaping the future of this technology. In the context of ambitious climate goals and the energy transition, Poland has the potential to leverage its natural resources and technological innovation to become a major player in the European green hydrogen market. Realizing this potential, however, will require decisive action, both at the national level and in international cooperation, to maximize the benefits of this green and energy-efficient technology.

Hydrogen production in Poland as an opportunity for the country's energy independence

As we know, Poland announced a Hydrogen Strategy in October 2021 to promote investment in hydrogen technology. As the third hydrogen producer in the European Union and the fifth in the world, Poland has the potential to become an important player in the global hydrogen market, provided certain conditions are met.

More than a million tons of mainly gray hydrogen is produced in Poland annually, used in the chemical, refining and food industries. Production leaders are Grupa Azoty, Zdzieszowice and Przyjazn Coking Plants, PKN Orlen and Lotos Group. In view of the data, the strategy is to increase the share of low-emission hydrogen in the structure of the raw material market in Poland.

Today, despite the difficulties of transporting and storing hydrogen, Poland is coping with these challenges. Hydrogen is an excellent fuel, but its production from fossil fuels is harmful to the environment. The alternative is to mine natural hydrogen deposits or produce it from water, although the latter method is energetically costly. However, using excess energy from renewable sources – OZE, such as strong wind – to produce hydrogen can be cost-effective. Hydrogen can serve not only as a source of energy, but also as a store of energy, enabling the storage of surplus energy. In the future, hydrogen production equipment may become available to owners of photovoltaic panels, opening up new possibilities for using hydrogen in transportation and other sectors.

For Poland, which already plays a significant role in hydrogen production, it will be crucial to focus on sustainable sourcing methods, especially on developing technologies that allow the production of green hydrogen from renewable energy sources. This will be critical to maintaining the country’s competitiveness in the fast-growing hydrogen market and to contributing to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But hydrogen production in Poland may indeed be our future.

With its position in the hydrogen market, Poland has an opportunity to play an important role in the future of this technology, especially in the context of climate change and the search for alternative energy sources.


Perspectiva Solutions - manufacturer of cable harnesses for hydrogen technology

As the Polish hydrogen technology market continues to grow, Perspectiva Solutions offers dedicated solutions in this rapidly changing sector. Specializing in the production of advanced wiring harnesses, Perspectiva Solutions provides the necessary components for various hydrogen technology applications in our country. High-quality and reliable wiring harnesses, are not only an integral part of hydrogen systems, but also bridge the gap between modern innovations and practical applications. By introducing to domestic as well as foreign markets, products tailored to the specific needs of the hydrogen sector, the company is playing a key role in promoting green and energy-efficient solutions.

Cable harnesses manufactured by Perspectiva Solutions are used in hydrogen fuel system control systems, power supply systems and safety sensors.

Your company's future in hydrogen technologies starts here!

Quick tips from Perspectiva Solutions

Can you afford the risk?

Against the backdrop of increasing competition and environmental pressures in the hydrogen technology industry, companies face the challenge of increasing operational efficiency and minimizing risk. Traditional cable systems often fail to meet modern performance and safety standards, creating potential tipping points in the energy infrastructure.

We offer dedicated solutions!

Perspectiva Solutions is responding to these challenges by providing advanced cable harnesses dedicated to the hydrogen technology sector. Our solutions, based on the latest advances in materials and monitoring, ensure not only durability and safety, but also adaptability to rapidly changing market needs.

Cable harnesses for hydrogen applications!

Our innovative cable harnesses offer unique benefits such as increased reliability, reduced risk of failure and optimized operating costs. Modular design and ease of service significantly reduce downtime, ensuring continuity of business operations. Intelligent monitoring systems guarantee immediate identification and response to potential problems, providing a higher level of control over production processes.

Don’t wait to join the revolution in hydrogen technologies.

We offer not just products, but comprehensive solutions tailored to the requirements of the most demanding projects. Learn more about our innovative solutions and how we can support your business in the transition to green energy.

Contact us to discover how we can help make your company more efficient and competitive in the hydrogen sector.


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Krzysztof Jakubczak