How the electric harness is produced?
An electric bundle is a complex connection, a set of wires, cables, connectors, terminals and other electrical elements that allow to transmit electric current or information signals. All these elements are connected together already at the stage of the wiring harness design process, which takes into account the working conditions and its application.
Electric harnesses have a wide range of applications, they can be used in various industries and fields, such as:
- Industrial automation
- Cars, automotive
- Construction – construction machinery
- Agriculture – agricultural machinery
- Electrical industry
- Aviation industry
- Space industry
- Medical industry
- Communication industry (railway, public transport)
- Arms industry
- Designing electrical harnesses
- Cutting and stripping of wires
- Labeling and marking
- Crimping or soldering the terminals
- Taping or binding with cable ties
- In-process control
- Installation of the wiring harness
- Final quality control of the finished wiring harness
- The most important quality criteria for the production of a harness are as follows
The process of producing electric harnesses:
Designing electrical harnesses
Why is reliable wiring harness design so important? One of the most important and key elements of automation for machines are electrical harnesses and entire cable wires that are necessary for the operation of the device.
Reliable wiring harness design is important for a number of reasons, including:
- Safety: A reliable and correctly designed wiring harness is crucial to ensuring safety in electrical systems. Faulty connections or wiring can lead to dangerous failures and danger to life.
- Performance optimization: A properly designed wiring harness can help optimize the performance of electrical systems. Proper cable placement and selection of the right materials can increase the efficiency and performance of your systems.
- Cost reduction: Reliable wiring harness design can help reduce costs by minimizing breakdowns, reducing downtime and the need for repair.
- Quality improvement: A good wiring harness quality can improve the quality of your products, especially for complex electrical systems such as cars and airplanes.
- Compliance with standards: A properly designed wiring harness should comply with industry norms and standards, which is crucial for the acceptance and safe use of electrical systems.
In addition to powering the machine, electrical harnesses are very helpful when any of the parts fail or fail. The wiring harness then sends a fault signal so that the central unit or operator can safely stop the machine. Proper alignment of the beam is therefore crucial.
Designing electrical harnesses for the client
Electrical harnesses are always made strictly in accordance with the technical and quality guidelines provided by the customer. Designing electrical harnesses for the customer is a process of creating individual solutions tailored to the specific needs and requirements of the customer. After all, it is the customer who knows best how the electrical device to which he wants to apply the beam works. However, based on our many years of experience, we also offer solutions, advising on the best, optimal and most effective cable bundles.
In this process, many factors must be taken into account, such as the type and size of the wires, the type of connectors, the method of connecting elements, as well as aesthetic and ergonomic criteria.
Reliability of wiring harnesses is extremely important in many industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics and telecommunications. Defective or poorly designed beams can cause system failures, which in extreme cases can result in serious financial losses or threat to human life.
Therefore, the design of electrical harnesses should be entrusted to specialists who have appropriate experience and technical knowledge. A properly designed wiring harness can not only improve system reliability, but also contribute to increased efficiency and savings in the long term. Professionally made harnesses guarantee the proper functioning of the device in which it will be installed.
What to pay attention to when designing a wiring harness
There are several important factors to consider when designing a wiring harness.
First, the customer’s requirements for the functionality, performance and durability of the harness must be thoroughly understood. Then, appropriate technical parameters should be matched to it, such as wire thickness, insulation material, type of connectors and many others.
We also focus on ensuring that the wiring harnesses are compatible with the latest types of automation, as well as powering them in such a way that they operate with a minimum number of connectors and cable sets. We also select power supply power and cable styles individually for each device. We also try to look for replacements for obsolete harness components to make wiring safer. While working on various projects, we strive for continuous improvement, which has a positive effect on the quality of the bundles as the final product.
An important aspect is also ensuring the safety of users, which requires compliance with safety and quality standards in the entire process of designing and manufacturing the electric harness.
Another important element is the optimization of production costs, but without compromising on quality and functionality. Therefore, it is important to use optimal materials and manufacturing processes to get the best result at the lowest possible cost.
In summary, wiring harness design requires consideration of many factors such as customer requirements, safety standards, manufacturing costs, and more. That is why it is worth using the services of experienced designers who will provide optimal solutions tailored to the specific needs of the client.
Cutting and stripping of wires
The first step in making cable harnesses is cutting and stripping of cables. The cables are cut in accordance with the demand for the length of the planned harness and the tolerance of the length of the finished product is taken into account. Normally, the customer specifies the tolerance of the cable length, which we take into account in the final dimensions. In addition to cables and harnesses, heat-shrinkable insulations, conduits, tubes and others are cut at the same time.
For the appropriate cutting of electrical cables, our company has a dedicated machine park equipped with precise machines for automatic wire cutting and insulation stripping. Automation of the process of cutting and stripping of wires allows for a significant increase in efficiency and precision of wiring harnesses. Cables with insulation are cut simultaneously, and with one / two / three / four-wire cables, the insulation can be removed automatically. In the case of cables with more wires or when they are made of materials difficult to machine, the cutting is divided into two stages. The first is to automatically remove the outer insulation during cutting. The second step is manual stripping of the internal wires, which also allows the wires to be twisted to obtain a frayed, uniform end of the bundle.
Labeling and marking
This activity is aimed at speeding up the process of identifying the type of a given cable. It also facilitates the subsequent assembly process at the customer’s site, as well as maintenance and finding the cause of a possible failure. Our company has dedicated printers for labels and a laser marking machine, which are perfect for the correct marking of wires.
How is the wire marking process performed? The most common and easiest way to mark individual wires is to use different colors of their insulation. However, you can also use markers made of heat shrinkable tubing that additionally act as insulation.
There are five basic groups of wire coding according to color:
- brown or black – phase wire,
- blue – neutral wire,
- yellow–green – PE protective conductor,
- red – direct current cable plus,
- black or blue – direct current wire minus.
In practice, however, the colors of the cables are much more diverse.
Wiring harnesses are also marked with letters and numbers. Such marking informs about the conductor structure and usually consists of three parts:
- letter – informs about the structure and material of the conductor, the material used to create the insulation and coating, as well as other supplementary information,
- digital – informs about the rated voltage of the insulation,
- digital – informs about the number and section of conductor.
There are times, however, when color coding is insufficient to be considered adequate, unambiguous information. Then, printed markers are used, most often made on a self-adhesive tape, heat-shrinkable tube, the so-called self-laminating label or protective tube. This method allows you to use several colors of markers, as well as the imprint made on them, and above all, it allows you to place any text content desired by the customer.
Crimping or soldering the terminals
almost every wiring harness has terminals, that is, various types of contacts. Sometimes also called pins.
There are two basic types of contacts – open barrel and closed barrel. Crimping can be done with hand tools but the best option is to use a press with applicators for connectors. An electric, pneumatic or semi-pneumatic press allows you to connect electric wires and wires with electronic components in a fully automatic way. There is also a different solution, which are non-stripping connectors which perforate the insulation during crimping, this is the so-called IDC (insulation displacement connection). They are most often used with ribbon cables.
They allow you to easily obtain a multi-core connection, mainly for cables that do not need large wire cross-sections i.e. signal cables or low currents.
Taping or binding with cable ties
the main purpose of taping and binding with cable ties is to keep order among various types of cables and to protect them from possible damage. Additionally, this process enables the bundle to be formed and kept in the desired shape. Thanks to this step, it is possible to properly fix, group and segregate cable bundles and wires. This facilitates assembly and avoids cable tangling, which contributes to safer functioning. It also allows transparency in the event of repair or service.
Various types of ties are used for the cable harness, often with specialized applications, depending on the conditions in which the cable will be located.
There are three main types of cable ties: inner and outer serrated, and with no serration. The former are intended for bundling standard cable bundles and wires, the latter are intended for cables with delicate insulation, while the latter are used to organize cables with large diameters. In addition, there are also fastened (temporary, reusable) and non-detachable (permanent) ties. During this process, the assembly of covers (e.g. corrugated tubes, smooth tubes, braids) is also performed, and in the strapping process – conduits, tension, artificial and metal braids.
Installation of the wiring harness
One of the last stages of the production of wiring harnesses is their assembly. The assembly of electrical harnesses in the machine takes place on the customer’s request and differs in the degree of complexity depending on the type of machine to which the harness is attached. The assembly of electrical connectors includes placing the contacts in the housings and connecting. The exact fit of the contact and proper seating in the connector is checked. The tongue and pawl must be inserted into the coupling in a tight, well-fixed way. Sometimes, however, you need to tighten the harness using the right amount of force. Overtightening will prevent the harness from conducting properly.
Final quality control of the finished wiring harness
Checking the correct operation and overall execution of wiring harnesses is a key step carried out before sending to the customer. The quality control of the harnesses is performed at every stage of cabling production, checking such elements as the dimensional accuracy of the cut, insulation, crimping geometry, tensile strength, etc. At the end, however, the correctness of the harness operation and compatibility with the device to which it is to be connected are carefully checked. The finished product is tested for correct electrical connections, no short circuits and continuity of insulation.
The most important quality criteria for the production of a harness are as follows
- Safety: it is important that the electric beam is safe for the user and does not pose a threat to his health and life.
- Durability: the wiring harness should be durable and resistant to mechanical damage and electrical interference.
- Mechanical strength: each bundle should meet the breaking force standards.
- Accuracy of connections: Connections between wires should be accurate and durable to ensure proper current flow.
- Insulation: The insulation of the wiring harness should be effective in protecting against electrical damage and interference.
- Wire Length Accuracy: Wire lengths should be accurate and appropriate to customer needs.
- Performance: The wiring loom should function as designed and as specified.
- Testing: It is important that the wiring loom is tested before shipment to ensure that it meets quality requirements.
- Compliance with standards: it is important that the wiring harness complies with applicable standards and regulations.
- Aesthetics: it is important that the electrical harness is aesthetic and in line with the customer’s expectations.
- Packing: it is important that the electric harness is properly protected before transport and storage.
esolido16 November 2022
Thanks for sharing useful information for us about electrical harness design & manufacturing. Do you construct harnesses from drawings or an existing harness?
admin17 November 2022
We offer both services to our clients. Wire harnesses can be constructed from drawings or from an existing harness. If you are interested in the offer for electric harnesses, please contact us by e-mail.